Schools of Thought

‘Vocatus atque non vocatus deus aderit’……’.called or not called God will be present.’… is the inscription in the stone portal above the front door of the house where used to live Carl Jung,one of the founders of modern psychotherapy,in Kusnacht,Zurich.It is attributed originally to the Delphic Oracle.This reality belief of Jung underlies his understanding of the nature of psychological symptoms in terms of Self alienation and the correct orientation of the personal ego sense of self. Jung was one of the favourite sons of Sigmund Freud,the other major figure of psychotherapy, in the early part of the Twentieth Century.However,the credo noted above marked a deviation from the thinking of Freud which marked the separation into silence of the relationship between these men.Jung was the son of a pastor which,perhaps,helped to orientate him towards a theory of a ‘collective self” in the personality of each person in addition to a purely ‘personal’ self.This is the basis for an elaborate system of a psychology which allows a language for a personal connective spiritual experience in contrast to a more formal group religious one.This ‘archetypal’, evolving to a purpose,dimension was anathema to Freud whose theories rested more on early development in a very personal specific deterministic fashion.Of course,schools of followers coalesced around each man.Those who follow Jung are called Analytical Psychotherapists whereas those who follow Freud are called Psychoanalytic Psychotherapists.Like most polarised positions in life this has,in the past,created conflict and claims for priority.More recent thinkers,such as Robert Johnson and others,have said we no longer live in a world of ‘Either/Or’ but instead in a world of ‘Either and Or’ .The challenge in most claims for ‘right’ and ‘truth’, including personal relationship conflict,is to find a respect for diversity of opinion and experience.Sometimes this means looking for perspectives which belong to different layers or levels.Which level in a lasagne is the ‘right’one?This may require flexible and creative thinking and some ability to deal with prejudice.The latter is an important topic in its own right to be discussed another time.

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