Dr. Malkin adopts a spectrum approach to psychological counselling, based on the Ken Wilber Psychotherapy Model. Ken Wilber (1982, The Spectrum of Consciousness, Wheaton, Il: The Theosophical Publishing House) provides a model which is helpful in directing a coherent multimodal approach to psychotherapeutic treatment.

Wilber (1982) outlines an understanding of consciousness in which there are different levels of awareness each potentially productive of a certain type of alienation from oneself. He contends that each of the major but differing schools of psychotherapy is simply addressing a different level of consciousness. Hence, he maintains that a true synthesis of therapies is one that can allow approaches leading to integrations which target the whole person.

Dr Malkin therefore utilises a variety of therapy methods, as deemed appropriate to individual circumstances, including:


Therapy for: Unwanted Behaviours, Anxiety, Phobias, Depression & Self-esteem Issues

Experimentally validated principles of learning are utilises in Behavioural Therapy to focus on blocking unwanted behaviours and habits or promoting wanted behaviours.

Counter-conditioning uses the reciprocal inhibition principle in which responses are encouraged such as relaxation which diminishes anxiety in the presence of anxiety provoking situations. Various relaxation techniques may be taught including breathing techniques, muscle relaxation, and autogenic relaxation based on a yoga nidra understanding of the value of shifting attention. Meditation is another relaxation technique with multiple approaches that can provide benefit. As a therapist, Dr Malkin uses these desensitising procedures to treat feared events of various kinds. Phobias and many anxiety disorders can be treated in this way.

Positive conditioning uses rewards of various types to encourage wanted behaviour. For example, using coaching assertiveness training, together with praise for positive outcomes can help treat low confidence and low self esteem. By contrast, extinction techniques may weaken a habit by disallowing a usual reward to unwanted behaviour, for example in the treatment of tics by deliberate overuse causing fatigue.

The thoughts and cognitions surrounding an individuals’ experience can also be targeted. The therapists aim is to eliminate illogical or irrational thinking styles which directly lead to unwanted feelings and behaviours. This is a major component of treating depression. It is not so much what happens to a person which determines outcome, but the way in which those events are interpreted or framed.


Therapy for: Low Self-esteem, Unwanted Behaviours & Habits

Hypnosis is a type of relaxing or entrancing technique which uses suggestion to present a wanted idea for uncritical acceptance.

Different individuals may have differing degrees of suggestibility which can determine outcome. Hypnotherapy is generally used as an adjunct therapy. If used at all, it is to accompany the overall counselling process. It can be used to help treat low self esteem or low self confidence as well as to eliminate unwanted habits such as smoking, nail biting, and losing weight as well as many other applications.


Treatment for: Unwanted or Dysfunctional Behaviours and Relationship Issues

Psychodynamic Therapy rests on the premise that people develop relational and attachment patterns in child hood that repeat in the present. Sometimes those patterns can be dysfunctional.

Transference analysis seeks to examine these patterns by looking at them as they develop in the psychotherapeutic relationship and that may relate to past experiences. Counselling approaches by contrast tend to focus on the here and now.


Transactional Analysis is a user friendly therapy that includes an understanding of personality based on an ego-state model. This links the structures of personality to behaviour and to the re-playing of childhood strategies in adult life.

As a therapist, Dr Malkin uses this approach to understand personal and business relationships and may also utilise such methods in psychotherapy, counselling, communications training, management training and organisational analysis. Re-decision counselling and Self-re-parenting strategies are very important components of transactional analysis.

The Basic concepts that underlie Transactional Analysis include:

  • We are all OK. We all have a basic lovable core and a desire for positive growth.
  • All of our many facets have a positive value for us in some way.
  • Positive reinforcement increases feelings of OK.
  • We are all responsible for the way we think,feel, and act.
  • Our beliefs and behaviour are results of decisions we have made at critical times in our growth. Any decision can be re-decided.
  • All emotional difficulties are curable.

(Taken from M. White and J.White…Talking TA.. WPATA Publications..revised 1998.)

The patient is a fully involved partner in the healing process. Change is most likely to occur when the psychologist and the client are both fully invested in a clear, healthy contract for the behavioural change sought.

The ultimate goal is internal awareness and harmony, spontaneity and authentic, open intimate communication with others.


Gestalt Therapy is a counselling approach that focuses on current experience rather than ruminations about the past or future. Hence, the focus is on awareness and action. Hence, change becomes possible by no longer denying or disowning parts of oneself.

The emphasis on increased awareness is intended to confront the person with full responsibility for all his behaviour, to increase authentic self expression and relating, and to minimise self deceptive, evasive and self frustrating behaviour. (J.Greenwald, The Handbook of Gestalt Therapy, Aronson, new york, 1978 p.267).

The ‘I-Thou and Here and Now’ precepts summarise this style of ‘presence’ in therapy between therapist and client in contrast to a more clinical ‘detached’ style.


Jungian Orientated Psychotherapy is work that facilitates the individuation process. The process is directed by the unconscious mainly expressed in dream images which can be used in a variety of ways.

Jung believed that the unconscious compensation as revealed in these images could effectively correct the one-sideness of the conscious mind if understood and integrated. Individuation can be seen as coming to ‘selfhood’. This is a holistic notion in which there is recognition of an autonomous centre in the psyche which is goal directed towards a sense of personal completeness, connectedness, harmony and self respect.

Examination of the myths and motifs that may be revealed in dreams can lead to trans-personal or archetypal insights.


Overall clients lead the process by describing their current interest, concern or experience. Approaches are used which seem to fit what is required with an integrated and developmental focus. Hence, psychological therapy and counselling are specifically tailored to maximise positive outcomes for each individual.

Most symptoms and problems accessible to counselling can be treated by different but complementary elements of the above methods. Sometimes prescribed medication treatment is a necessary partner in the overall process for maximum benefit.

An example of Dr Malkin’s spectrum approach to counselling and psychotherapy can be found in the published paper ‘Individuation in a Voyeur Recidivist’. Please contact Dr David Malkin if you would like a copy.